Review of Stellar Simulations and Resulting Publications

(published April 2024, month 36 of the project)

This page reviews the theoretical work led or supported by WP4 (task 4.1).  WP4 led or supported a wide range of simulations of stars in both multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations as well as one-dimensional (spherically symmetric) stellar evolution models. WP4 also delivered predictions of nucleosynthesis productions in stars of various masses, metallicities and input physics (e.g. rotation and magnetic fields, single and binary stars).

In addition, WP4 delivered various astronomical impact studies of newly measured reactions rates for various processes (e.g. slow, intermediate and rapid neutron capture processes) in different astrophysical environments (e.g. novae, low-mass stars, massive stars, X-ray bursts, supernova explosions). The 39 publications resulting from WP4 activities are available at, and listed below. 

The WP4 simulations undertaken and resulting publications in year 3 of the project (not included in the D4.4 deliverable at month 24) are:

“The intermediate neutron capture process. IV. Impact of nuclear model and parameter uncertainties”, Martinet, S., Choplin, A., Goriely, S., and Siess, L., 2024, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 684, A8 (\&A…684A…8M

“Spectacular Nucleosynthesis from Early Massive Stars”, Ji, A. P., Curtis, S., Storm, N., Chandra, V., Schlaufman, K. C., Stassun, K. G., Heger, A., Pignatari, M., Price-Whelan, A. M., Bergemann, M., Stringfellow, G. S., Froehlich, C., Reggiani, H., Holmbeck, E. M., Tayar, J., Shah, S. P., Griffith, E. J., Laporte, C. F. P., Casey, A. R., Hawkins, K., Horta, D., Cerny, W., Thibodeaux, P., Usman, S. A., Amarante, J. A. S., Beaton, R. L., Cargile, P. A., Chiappini, C., Conroy, C., Johnson, J. A., Kollmeier, J. A., Li, H., Loebman, S., Meynet, G., Bizyaev, D., Brownstein, J. R., Gupta, P., Morrison, S., Pan, K., Ramirez, S. V., Rix, H.-W., and Sanchez-Gallego, J., 2024, The Astrophysical Journal, 961, L41 (…961L..41J

“The s process in massive stars, a benchmark for neutron capture reaction rates”, Pignatari, M., Gallino, R., and Reifarth, R., 2023, European Physical Journal A, 59, 302 (…59..302P

“Very massive star models. I. Impact of rotation and metallicity and comparisons with observations”, Martinet, S., Meynet, G., Ekstroem, S., Georgy, C., and Hirschi, R., 2023, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 679, A137 (\&A…679A.137M

“Stellar wind yields of very massive stars”, Higgins, E. R., Vink, J. S., Hirschi, R., Laird, A. M., and Sabhahit, G. N., 2023, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 526, 534 (

“First measurement of the low-energy direct capture in 20Ne(p,g)21Na and improved energy and strength of the Ecm=368 keV resonance”, Masha, E., Barbieri, L., Skowronski, J., Aliotta, M., Ananna, C., Barile, F., Bemmerer, D., Best, A., Boeltzig, A., Broggini, C., Bruno, C. G., Caciolli, A., Campostrini, M., Casaburo, F., Cavanna, F., Ciani, G. F., Ciapponi, A., Colombetti, P., Compagnucci, A., Corvisiero, P., Csedreki, L., Davinson, T., Depalo, R., Di Leva, A., Elekes, Z., Ferraro, F., Fiore, E. M., Formicola, A., Fulop, Z., Gervino, G., Guglielmetti, A., Gustavino, C., Gyurky, G., Imbriani, G., Jose, J., Junker, M., Lugaro, M., Manoj, P., Marigo, P., Menegazzo, R., Paticchio, V., Piatti, D., Prati, P., Rapagnani, D., Rigato, V., Robb, D., Schiavulli, L., Sidhu, R. S., Straniero, O., Szucs, T., Zavatarelli, S., and LUNA collaboration, 2023, Physical Review C, 108, L052801 (

“Mass-loss and composition of wind ejecta in type I X-ray bursts”, Herrera, Y., Sala, G., and Jose, J., 2023, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 678, A156 (\&A…678A.156H

“The Nuclear Reaction Network WinNet”, Reichert, M., Winteler, C., Korobkin, O., Arcones, A., Bliss, J., Eichler, M., Frischknecht, U., Froehlich, C., Hirschi, R., Jacobi, M., Kuske, J., Martinez-Pinedo, G., Martin, D., Mocelj, D., Rauscher, T., and Thielemann, F.-K., 2023, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 268, 66 (…66R

“The chemical evolution of the solar neighbourhood for planet-hosting stars”, Pignatari, M., Trueman, T. C. L., Womack, K. A., Gibson, B. K., Cote, B., Turrini, D., Sneden, C., Mojzsis, S. J., Stancliffe, R. J., Fong, P., Lawson, T. V., Keegans, J. D., Pilkington, K., Passy, J.-C., Beers, T. C., and Lugaro, M., 2023, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 524, 6295 (

“Improved thermonuclear rate of 42Ti(p,g)43V and its astrophysical implication in the rp process”, Hou, S. Q., Iliadis, C., Pignatari, M., Liu, J. B., Trueman, T. C. L., Li, J. G., and Xu, X. X., 2023, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 677, A139 (\&A…677A.139H

“Search for 22Na in novae supported by a novel method for measuring femtosecond nuclear lifetimes”, Fougeres, C., de Oliveira Santos, F., Jose, J., Michelagnoli, C., Clement, E., Kim, Y. H., Lemasson, A., Guimaraes, V., Barrientos, D., Bemmerer, D., Benzoni, G., Boston, A. J., Boettger, R., Boulay, F., Bracco, A., Celikovic, I., Cederwall, B., Ciemala, M., Delafosse, C., Domingo-Pardo, C., Dudouet, J., Eberth, J., Fulop, Z., Gonzalez, V., Gottardo, A., Goupil, J., Hess, H., Jungclaus, A., Kaskas, A., Korichi, A., Lenzi, S. M., Leoni, S., Li, H., Ljungvall, J., Lopez-Martens, A., Menegazzo, R., Mengoni, D., Million, B., Mrazek, J., Napoli, D. R., Navin, A., Nyberg, J., Podolyak, Z., Pullia, A., Quintana, B., Ralet, D., Redon, N., Reiter, P., Rezynkina, K., Saillant, F., Salsac, M.-D., Sanchez-Benitez, A. M., Sanchis, E., Senyigit, M., Siciliano, M., Smirnova, N. A., Sohler, D., Stanoiu, M., Theisen, C., Valiente-Dobon, J. J., Ujic, P., and Zielinska, M., 2023, Nature Communications, 14, 4536 (

“Type Ia Supernova Nucleosynthesis: Metallicity-dependent Yields”, Keegans, J. D., Pignatari, M., Stancliffe, R. J., Travaglio, C., Jones, S., Gibson, B. K., Townsley, D. M., Miles, B. J., Shen, K. J., and Few, G., 2023, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 268, 8 (….8K

“The gamma-process nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae. I. A novel analysis of gamma-process yields in massive stars”, Roberti, L., Pignatari, M., Psaltis, A., Sieverding, A., Mohr, P., Fülöp, Z., and Lugaro, M., 2023, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 677, A22 (\&A…677A..22R

“3D stellar evolution: hydrodynamic simulations of a complete burning phase in a massive star”, Rizzuti, F., Hirschi, R., Arnett, W. D., Georgy, C., Meakin, C., Murphy, A. S., Rauscher, T., and Varma, V., 2023, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 523, 2317 (

“Aluminium-26 from Massive Binary Stars. III. Binary Stars up to Core Collapse and Their Impact on the Early Solar System”, Brinkman, H. E., Doherty, C., Pignatari, M., Pols, O., and Lugaro, M., 2023, The Astrophysical Journal, 951, 110 (…951..110B

“New 26P(p,g)27S Thermonuclear Reaction Rate and Its Astrophysical Implications in the rp-process”, Hou, S. Q., Liu, J. B., Trueman, T. C. L., Li, J. G., Pignatari, M., Bertulani, C. A., and Xu, X. X., 2023, The Astrophysical Journal, 950, 133 (…950..133H

“Unveiling the chemical fingerprint of phosphorus-rich stars. I. In the infrared region of APOGEE-2”, Brauner, M., Masseron, T., Garcia-Hernandez, D. A., Pignatari, M., Womack, K. A., Lugaro, M., and Hayes, C. R., 2023, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 673, A123 (\&A…673A.123B

“Barium stars as tracers of s-process nucleosynthesis in AGB stars. II. Using machine learning techniques on 169 stars”, den Hartogh, J. W., Yague Lopez, A., Cseh, B., Pignatari, M., Vilagos, B., Roriz, M. P., Pereira, C. B., Drake, N. A., Junqueira, S., and Lugaro, M., 2023, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 672, A143 (\&A…672A.143D

“Representation of s-process abundances for comparison to data from bulk meteorites”, Lugaro, M., Ek, M., Peto, M., Pignatari, M., Makhatadze, G. V., Onyett, I. J., and Schonbachler, M., 2023, European Physical Journal A, 59, 53 (…59…53L

“Chemical evolution of fluorine in the Milky Way”, Womack, K. A., Vincenzo, F., Gibson, B. K., Cote, B., Pignatari, M., Brinkman, H. E., Ventura, P., and Karakas, A., 2023, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 518, 1543 (

For completeness, we also include here publications resulting from task 4.1 during the first two years of the project:

“New Constraints for Supernova Models from Presolar Silicon Carbide X Grains with Very High 26Al/27Al Ratios”, Hoppe, P., Leitner, J., Pignatari, M., and Amari, S., 2023, The Astrophysical Journal, 943, L22 (…943L..22H

“Impact of newly measured 26Al(n,p)26Mg and 26Al(n,a)23Na reaction rates on the nucleosynthesis of 26Al in stars”, Battino, U., Lederer-Woods, C., Pignatari, M., Soos, B., Lugaro, M., Vescovi, D., Cristallo, S., Woods, P. J., and Karakas, A., 2023, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 520, 2436 (

“Isotopic ratios for C, N, Si, Al, and Ti in C-rich presolar grains from massive stars”, Schofield, J., Pignatari, M., Stancliffe, R. J., and Hoppe, P., 2022, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 517, 1803 (

“The effects of surface fossil magnetic fields on massive star evolution: IV. Grids of models at Solar, LMC, and SMC metallicities”, Keszthelyi, Z., de Koter, A., Goetberg, Y., Meynet, G., Brands, S. A., Petit, V., Carrington, M., David-Uraz, A., Geen, S. T., Georgy, C., Hirschi, R., Puls, J., Ramalatswa, K. J., Shultz, M. E., and ud-Doula, A., 2022, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 517, 2028 (

“Realistic 3D hydrodynamics simulations find significant turbulent entrainment in massive stars”, Rizzuti, F., Hirschi, R., Georgy, C., Arnett, W. D., Meakin, C., and Murphy, A. S., 2022, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 515, 4013 (

“Deep Underground Laboratory Measurement of 13C(a,n)16O in the Gamow Windows of the s and i Processes”, Gao, B., Jiao, T. Y., Li, Y. T., Chen, H., Lin, W. P., An, Z., Ru, L. H., Zhang, Z. C., Tang, X. D., Wang, X. Y., Zhang, N. T., Fang, X., Xie, D. H., Fan, Y. H., Ma, L., Zhang, X., Bai, F., Wang, P., Fan, Y. X., Liu, G., Huang, H. X., Wu, Q., Zhu, Y. B., Chai, J. L., Li, J. Q., Sun, L. T., Wang, S., Cai, J. W., Li, Y. Z., Su, J., Zhang, H., Li, Z. H., Li, Y. J., Li, E. T., Chen, C., Shen, Y. P., Lian, G., Guo, B., Li, X. Y., Zhang, L. Y., He, J. J., Sheng, Y. D., Chen, Y. J., Wang, L. H., Zhang, L., Cao, F. Q., Nan, W., Nan, W. K., Li, G. X., Song, N., Cui, B. Q., Chen, L. H., Ma, R. G., Zhang, Z. C., Yan, S. Q., Liao, J. H., Wang, Y. B., Zeng, S., Nan, D., Fan, Q. W., Qi, N. C., Sun, W. L., Guo, X. Y., Zhang, P., Chen, Y. H., Zhou, Y., Zhou, J. F., He, J. R., Shang, C. S., Li, M. C., Kubono, S., Liu, W. P., deBoer, R. J., Wiescher, M., Pignatari, M., and JUNA Collaboration, 2022, Physical Review Letters, 129, 132701 (

“The R-Process Alliance: Abundance Universality among Some Elements at and between the First and Second R-Process Peaks”, Roederer, I. U., Cowan, J. J., Pignatari, M., Beers, T. C., Den Hartog, E. A., Ezzeddine, R., Frebel, A., Hansen, T. T., Holmbeck, E. M., Mumpower, M. R., Placco, V. M., Sakari, C. M., Surman, R., and Vassh, N., 2022, The Astrophysical Journal, 936, 84 (…936…84R

“Very massive star winds as sources of the short-lived radioactive isotope 26Al”, Martinet, S., Meynet, G., Nandal, D., Ekstroem, S., Georgy, C., Haemmerle, L., Hirschi, R., Yusof, N., Gounelle, M., and Dwarkadas, V., 2022, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 664, A181 (\&A…664A.181M

“The impact of 17O+alpha reaction rate uncertainties on the s-process in rotating massive stars”, Frost-Schenk, J., Adsley, P., Laird, A. M., Longland, R., Angus, C., Barton, C., Choplin, A., Diget, C. A., Hirschi, R., Marshall, C., Portillo Chaves, F., and Setoodehnia, K., 2022, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 514, 2650 (

“The p-process in exploding rotating massive stars”, Choplin, A., Goriely, S., Hirschi, R., Tominaga, N., and Meynet, G., 2022, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 661, A86 (\&A…661A..86C

“Constraining the 30P(p,g)31S Reaction Rate in ONe Novae via the Weak, Low-Energy, beta-Delayed Proton Decay of 31Cl”, Budner, T., Friedman, M., Wrede, C., Brown, B. A., Jose, J., Perez-Loureiro, D., Sun, L. J., Surbrook, J., Ayyad, Y., Bardayan, D. W., Chae, K., Chen, A. A., Chipps, K. A., Cortesi, M., Glassman, B., Hall, M. R., Janasik, M., Liang, J., O’Malley, P., Pollacco, E., Psaltis, A., Stomps, J., and Wheeler, T., 2022, Physical Review Letters, 128, 182701 (

“Hydrogen Burning of 29Si and Its Impact on Presolar Stardust Grains from Classical Novae”, Downen, L., Iliadis, C., Champagne, A., Clegg, T., Coc, A., and Jose, J., 2022, The Astrophysical Journal, 928, 128 (…928..128D

“Grids of stellar models with rotation VII: models from 0.8 to 300 Msun at supersolar metallicity (Z = 0.020)”, Yusof, N., Hirschi, R., Eggenberger, P., Ekstroem, S., Georgy, C., Sibony, Y., Crowther, P. A., Meynet, G., Kassim, H. A., Harun, W. A. W., Maeder, A., Groh, J. H., Farrell, E., and Murphy, L., 2022, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 511, 2814 (

“Radioactive nuclei in the early Solar system: analysis of the 15 isotopes produced by core-collapse supernovae”, Lawson, T. V., Pignatari, M., Stancliffe, R. J., den Hartogh, J., Jones, S., Fryer, C. L., Gibson, B. K., and Lugaro, M., 2022, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 511, 886 (

“Comparison between Core-collapse Supernova Nucleosynthesis and Meteoric Stardust Grains: Investigating Magnesium, Aluminium, and Chromium”, den Hartogh, J., Peto, M. K., Lawson, T., Sieverding, A., Brinkman, H., Pignatari, M., and Lugaro, M., 2022, The Astrophysical Journal, 927, 220 (…927..220D

“Dynamics in a stellar convective layer and at its boundary: Comparison of five 3D hydrodynamics codes”, Andrassy, R., Higl, J., Mao, H., Mocak, M., Vlaykov, D. G., Arnett, W. D., Baraffe, I., Campbell, S. W., Constantino, T., Edelmann, P. V. F., Goffrey, T., Guillet, T., Herwig, F., Hirschi, R., Horst, L., Leidi, G., Meakin, C., Pratt, J., Rizzuti, F., Roepke, F. K., and Woodward, P., 2022, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 659, A193 (\&A…659A.193A

“(6Li, d ) and (6Li, t ) reactions on 22Ne and implications for s -process nucleosynthesis”, Ota, S., Christian, G., Catford, W. N., Lotay, G., Pignatari, M., Battino, U., Bennett, E. A., Dede, S., Doherty, D. T., Hallam, S., Herwig, F., Hooker, J., Hunt, C., Jayatissa, H., Matta, A., Moukaddam, M., Rao, E., Rogachev, G. V., Saastamoinen, A., Scriven, D., Tostevin, J. A., Upadhyayula, S., and Wilkinson, R., 2021, Physical Review C, 104, 055806 


“New Thermonuclear Rate of 7Li(d,n)24He Relevant to the Cosmological Lithium Problem”, Hou, S. Q., Kajino, T., Trueman, T. C. L., Pignatari, M., Luo, Y. D., and Bertulani, C. A., 2021, The Astrophysical Journal, 920, 145 


“The 59Fe(n,gamma)60Fe Cross Section from the Surrogate Ratio Method and Its Effect on the 60Fe Nucleosynthesis”, Yan, S. Q., Li, X. Y., Nishio, K., Lugaro, M., Li, Z. H., Makii, H., Pignatari, M., Wang, Y. B., Orlandi, R., Hirose, K., Tsukada, K., Mohr, P., Li, G. S., Wang, J. G., Gao, B. S., Han, Y. L., Guo, B., Li, Y. J., Shen, Y. P., Sato, T. K., Ito, Y., Suzaki, F., Su, J., Yang, Y. Y., Wang, J. S., Ma, J. B., Ma, P., Bai, Z., Xu, S. W., Ren, J., Fan, Q. W., Zeng, S., Han, Z. Y., Nan, W., Nan, W. K., Chen, C., Lian, G., Hu, Q., Duan, F. F., Jin, S. Y., Tang, X. D., and Liu, W. P., 2021, The Astrophysical Journal, 919, 84